Leptin as a New Approach for Treatment for Autism and Epilepsy

Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism.

“Leptin plays a role in modulating structure and synaptic communication in brain. Some studies on animal models reported that chronic leptin deficiency in mice raise susceptibility to seizure and leptin administeringin rodent seizure models suppresses seizures via direct effects on glutamate neurotransmission. So, leptin receptor activation is suggested as a novel targets for treatment of epilepsy in animal. However, another recently published study on animal model indicateddose-related proconvulsant activity of leptin. Leptin resistance and increased blood level of leptin is reported in epilepsy in human.

Given that, leptin level in autism is higher than controls. Also, long-term plasma leptin levels in Rett syndrome is reported. It is worth conducting studies investigating possible difference between the group of ASD with epilepsy and the group of ASD without epilepsy regarding leptin level and its receptor resistance. Probably, leptin may be a link between autism and epilepsy that provides an avenue for novel or better management of autistic children with epilepsy. For example, Ketogenic diets which are effective for epilepsy management increase leptin level in Young rodents.”



Ghanizaeh A. Leptin as a new approach for treatment for autism and epilepsy, a hypothesis with clinical implications. Brain Dev 2011; 33 (1): 92; author reply 92-3. Epub 2010 Sep 6.

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Environmental Factors Contributing to the Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder – a Large Database Retrospective Study

This report by Dr. Stephen Barrie, ND is the results of a large clinical database study examing the envrionmental factors contributing to the developement of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Published in 2010.

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Biological Treatments for Autism & PDD

Causes and Biomedial Therapies for Autism and PDD. 

This is an authoritative, comprehensive, and easy-to-read resource guide to a wide range of therapies that have been useful in the treatment of autism including antifungal and antibacterial therapies, gluten and casein restriction, homeopathy, vitamin therapy, gamma globulin treatment, transfer factor therapies, treatment of food allergies, and alternatives to antibiotic therapy. The information in this book may be useful not only in the field of autism but also in virtually any disorder in which some of the symptoms of autism are sometimes or frequently present.

The author of this book, Dr. William Shaw, received a Ph.D. in biochemistry and human physiology, and is board certified in Immunology and Toxicology. He is known worldwide for his research and for speaking at conferences in the field of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Dr. Shaw is the founder and director of The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. in Lenexa, Kansas, a laboratory specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders of adults and children. Dr. Shaw has been actively involved with both the Defeat Autism Now! and Autism Speaks groups. He is a board member of the National Academy for Child Development. In 1998 he published this book for the first time, and it has since been translated into nine languages. His book has helped thousands of parents and physicians to successfully contribute to improve the lives of countless children and adults on the autistic spectrum.

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Children With Autism And Gastrointestinal Symptoms Have Altered Digestive Genes

These changes may also affect the mix of bacteria present in the digestive tract

Researchers at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and at the Harvard Medical School report that children with autism and gastrointestinal disturbances have altered expression of genes involved in digestion. These variations may contribute to changes in the types of bacteria in their intestines. Full study findings are reported online in the journal PLoS ONE.

Autism, which is defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, affects approximately 1% of the population. Many children with autism have gastrointestinal problems that can complicate clinical management and contribute to behavioral disturbances. In some children, special diets and antibiotics have been associated with improvements in social, cognitive and gastrointestinal function.

The investigators found that children diagnosed with autism and gastrointestinal disturbances have abnormalities in levels of genes for enzymes that break down sugars and for molecules that transport them from the lumen of the intestine into the blood. These variations were also associated with changes in the bacterial composition of the intestine.

The researchers examined biopsies from 22 patients, 15 diagnosed with autism and seven typically developing children. They used real-time PCR to measure gene expression and genetic sequencing techniques to characterize the bacteria present in the intestines of each child.

Brent Williams, PhD, research scientist at CII and first author of the study, noted that, “whereas others have looked at bacterial composition of feces, our group was the first to characterize mucosal communities and to link findings to expression of genes important in carbohydrate metabolism and transport.”

“The findings are consistent with other research suggesting that autism may be a system-wide disorder, and provide insight into why changes in diet or the use of antibiotics may help alleviate symptoms in some children,” added Mady Hornig, MD, Director of Translational Research at the Center for Infection and Immunity.

“Although caution in interpretation is indicated because the sample size is small, our findings nonetheless provide a framework for developing and testing new hypotheses concerning the role of malabsorption and microflora in autism and related disorders,” said Ian Lipkin, MD, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity.



Williams BL, Hornig M, Buie T, Bauman ML, Cho Paik M, et al. (2011) Impaired Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport and Mucosal Dysbiosis in the Intestines of Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Disturbances. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024585


Thimerosal (Ethylmercury), Vaccines and Autism

Charlie Crist, the Governor of Florida alarmed at the growing rate of Autism and its effect on the children and families of the State of Florida as well as the economic impact on healthcare and educational systems, commissioned by Executive Order 08-36 (March 7, 2008) the Autism Task Force, a broad Panel of individuals from both private and public sectors, to examine and evaluate the risks to the children and economy of the State of Florida.

On September 24-25, 2008 Governor Crist’s Task Force on Autism Spectrum Disorders convened at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. These are highlights from the two day conference.

The use of thimerosal (ethylmercury), a preservative used in vaccinations, was the hot topic of the two day conference.


Mercury and its compounds are hazardous to humans.

Ethylmercury, mercury’s most dangerous compound, is used extensively in vaccines as a preservative and anti-bacterial agent.



Immunoexcitotoxicity and Autism Spectrum Disorders (Lecture)

Dr. Russell L. Blaylock (born 1945) is a board certified neurosurgeon, author and lecturer. He is a former clinical assistant professor of neurosurgery at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and is currently a visiting professor in the biology department at Belhaven College.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminium and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain.



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Autism, No Vaccines No Autism

“We have a fairly large practice. We have about 30,000 or 35,000 children that we’ve taken care of over the years, and I don’t think we have a single case of autism in children delivered by us who never received vaccines,” said Dr. Mayer Eisenstein (2009), Homefirst’s medical director who founded the practice in 1973. Homefirst doctors have delivered more than 15,000 babies at home, and thousands of them have never been vaccinated.


The Mercury Autism Cover-Up

Since the 1990s, there has been a tenfold or 1000-percent increase in autism. This increase in reported autism cases eerily parallels the increase in the number and frequency of thimerosal-containing vaccinations administered to infants.

Thimerosal is a preservative used in many vaccines, and contains about 50 percent mercury.

Despite removal of thimerosal from many childhood vaccines, it is still routinely added international to some formulations of influenza vaccine administered to infants, as well as to several other vaccines administered to older children and adults.

The biggest problem with all of this is calling it autism. The government was brilliant in coming up with a diagnosis that so mirrored mercury poisoning and vaccine injury so it could be debated until the cows come home and no one will ever have to take responsibility so the immunization program could continue on and on. If everyone who felt their child was truly vaccine injured stopped called their children autistic but rather vaccine injured, we would be in a much different place. There is too much to debate where autism comes from. But there is no debate of where a vaccine injury comes from.

Amy M. Carson, Co-Founder
Moms Against Mercury

We need to call this epidemic what it is, massive vaccine damage to our children. We need to point out the exceptionally high infant and child death rates in the USA as compared to the rest of the similar advanced countries. It is amazing that our child (up to 5 years of age) death rate is 6.7 per 1,000 whereas Singapore has a rate of 2.5 per 1,000. That is 4.2 more deaths in the USA per 1,000 and we have about 4.25 million births a year. Multiply it out, then get angry and call your congressman. The numbers make the world trade center disaster seem small by comparison. Note also, that the child death rate is also quite high for higher income white families which proves that it is not lack of food or access to medical care that is causing this high death rate. We need answers and we need them immediately. Certainly, our CDC knows what these children are dying of, either infectious diseases indicating the vaccines are not working or neurological illnesses (seizures, asthma, etc.) indicating the vaccines may be trading one type of illness for another. No matter, this issue needs congressional attention and we need the facts.

Boyd E. Haley, PhD
Professor Emeritus

University of Kentucky
Chemistry Department

Mercury, Autism And The Global Vaccine Agenda

Why is the rate of autism, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease increasing in the U.S.? Why does one in 6 American children have a neurodevelopmental abnormality? Is the influenza vaccine administered in the U.S. safe and effective? Is thimerosal safe and effective? Are the childhood vaccines being administered in third-world countries safe and effective? What do the scientific studies reveal? Does exposure to mercury influence fertility? Why do the people who support population reduction advocate world-wide vaccination programs? Do they have a hidden agenda? This video by Dr. David Ayoub answers those, and many other questions (Radio Liberty, 2006).

Mercury Toxicity & Autism

In this interview, Professor Boyd Haley (Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky Medical Center) discusses mercury toxicity as a causal factor in Autism. He also discusses the two primary sources of mercury toxicity: vaccines & dental amalgams. Dr. Haley has testified as an expert witness at government hearings on the issue of the health hazards of mercury in vaccines and dental amalgam. F.A.I.R. Autism Media, 2006.