An Integrative Approach to ADHD (Lecture)

Professor Sanford Newmark, MD, explores in this lecture (2011) the importance of the Integrative Approach-seeing the child in the context of family, friends, school and community, rather than as a set of symptoms that need to be fixed.

Dr. Newmark is a clinical Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California. He is the head of the Pediatric Integrative Neurodevelopmental Program at the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, specializing in the treatment of autism, ADHD and other developmental or chronic childhood conditions.

Topics in this lecture include an overview of the genetic, environmental and neurobiological aspects, non-pharmaceutical therapies including nutrition, food sensitivities, vitamin and mineral supplements, parenting, school, and complementary therapies.

 

Prenatal Choline May Program Healthier Babies

Increased maternal intake of the nutrient choline could reduce their kid’s chances of developing hypertension and diabetes later in life.

In a study led by Marie Caudill, associate professor of nutritional sciences, and graduate student Xinyin Jiang, a group of third-trimester pregnant women consumed 930 milligrams of choline, more than double the recommended 450 milligram daily intake.

The result for their babies was 33 per cent lower concentrations of cortisol – a hormone produced in response to stress that also increases blood sugar – compared to those from a control group of women who consumed about 480 milligrams of choline.

Caudill believes this happened because the choline changed the expression patterns of genes involved in cortisol production.

The work is the first human study to suggest a role for choline in the “programming” of key biological processes in the baby.

“The study findings raise the exciting possibility that a higher maternal choline intake may counter some of the adverse effects of prenatal stress on behavioral, neuroendocrine and metabolic development in the offspring,” Caudill said.

This could be especially useful for women experiencing anxiety and depression during their pregnancy, as well as conditions such as pre-eclampsia.

“A dampening of the baby’s response to stress as a result of mother consuming extra choline during pregnancy would be expected to reduce the risk of stress-related diseases such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes throughout the life of the child,” she said.

She said additional studies are needed to confirm the study findings and further explore long-term effects. Dietary sources of choline include egg yolks, beef, pork, chicken, milk, legumes and some vegetables. Most prenatal vitamin supplements do not include choline.

“We hope that our data will inform the development of choline intake recommendations for pregnant women that ensure optimal fetal development and reduce the risk of stress-related diseases,” Caudill added.

The study has been published online in The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

 

Reference

Jiang X, Yan J, West AA, Perry CA, Malysheva OV, Devapatla S, Pressman E, Vermeylen F, Caudill MA. Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans. FASEB J. 2012 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Researchers Show Prebiotic Can Reduce Severity of Colitis

MSU food science and human nutrition researcher Jenifer Fenton

Researchers at Michigan State University have shown a prebiotic may help the body’s own natural killer cells fight bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, greatly decreasing the risk of colon cancer.

Prebiotics are fiber supplements that serve as food for the trillions of tiny bacteria living in the gut. When taken, they can stimulate the growth of the “good” bacteria. The evolution of prebiotic supplements (as well as probiotics, which are actual bacteria ingested into the system) provide new therapeutic targets for researchers and physicians.

In research published in the Journal of Nutrition, MSU’s Jenifer Fenton reports that mice given the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide, or GOS, saw the severity of their colitis (one of the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease) significantly reduced.

In fact, the mice fed GOS – a synthetic compound that is known to stimulate beneficial bacteria and is found in foods such as biscuits and infant formula – saw a 50 percent reduction in colitis.

Research has shown certain types of foods and fibers can reduce colon cancer risk, said Fenton of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition.

“There is something unique about certain types of fibers, such as GOS, and how they alter cells and influence the immune system to change disease risk, either for the good or bad,” she said. “Our overall goal is to identify either dietary patterns or diet components to reduce inflammation and cancer risk.

“In this case, we used prebiotics to stimulate changes in bacteria in the gut that may have a beneficial impact on the colon.”

Fenton worked closely on the project with Elizabeth Gardner, also with the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and who previously has looked at the impact diet plays in fighting off the flu. In applying some of the lessons learned in those studies to mice with bacterially induced colitis, the researchers found mice given GOS had significantly less inflammation and fewer abnormal cells, two precursors for colon cancer.

It appeared, Fenton said, the positive results were linked to the significant enhancement of the body’s own natural killer cells, found in the immune system and crucial in fighting off new infections in the body.

“Our results suggest GOS may be effective in reducing colitis severity by priming the innate immune system,” she said.

The next step is to verify how that mechanism works; finding that link could help researchers apply the lessons learned to other intestinal ailments.

 

References

Gopalakrishnan A, Clinthorne JF, Rondini EA, McCaskey SJ, Gurzell EA, Langohr IM, Gardner EM, Fenton JI. Supplementation with Galacto-Oligosaccharides Increases the Percentage of NK Cells and Reduces Colitis Severity in Smad3-Deficient Mice. 2012 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Michigan State University (06.06.2012)

 

Is Your Child’s Brain Starving? (Lecture)

Food, Not Drugs for Life and Learning: 

This is a lecture (2007) on how diet can contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by Dr. Michael R. Lyon, MD. He is an Adjunct Professor at the University of British Columbia’s Food, Nutrition and Health Program. Dr. Lyon is also a member of the Expert Advisory Committee for Health Canada’s Natural Health Products Directorate, as well as Medical and Research Director of the Canadian Centre for Functional Medicine.

Dr. Lyon has designed and conducted numerous clinical trials on natural health products. His extensive clinical research also includes the development of treatment strategies for children with learning and behavioural difficulties, as well as ADHD. Two of Michael R. Lyon’s published works include: Is Your Child’s Brain Starving? Food Not Drugs for Life and Learning and How to Prevent and Treat Diabetes with Natural Medicine.

A Delicate Balance – The Truth

Every person today has been touched or will be touched by the loss of a loved one to illness and premature death. In a time when modern medicine and science have made such enormous advancements, why is this so? The film identifies the effects of animal agriculture upon the environment. There are many ways of reducing impact upon climate change.

“Livestock are responsible for about 18 percent of the global warming effect, more than transportation’s contribution.” “At present, there are about 1.5 billion cattle and domestic buffalo and about 1.7 billion sheep and goats. With pigs and poultry, they form a critical part of our enormous biological footprint upon this planet.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Through interviews with top experts in the field of medicine, ecology and nutrition, this documentary explains why people in the Western World are subject to the unprecedented epidemic of ill health.

The film, written by Aaron Scheibner, shows a way out of this cycle of sickness, both human and environmental. We don’t think about where our food comes from and what it does to our body and mind or what impact it has on the world around us.

A Delicate Balance -The Truth (2008) is a succinct production featuring candid, heartfelt interviews with some of the world’s leading experts (including mainstream researchers, doctors, nutritionists, cattle ranchers, environmentalists and politicians) from Harvard to Cornell to Tufts.

A Delicate Balance was made in order to help reduce the unnecessary loss of human life, to reduce the suffering of animals across the planet and to help empower people to make environmental change.

 

Researchers Find Potential ‘Dark Side’ to Diets High in Beta-Carotene

New research suggests that there could be health hazards associated with consuming excessive amounts of beta-carotene.

This antioxidant is a naturally occurring pigment that gives color to foods such as carrots, sweet potatoes and certain greens. It also converts to vitamin A, and foods and supplements are the only sources for this essential nutrient.

But scientists at Ohio State University have found that certain molecules that derive from beta-carotene have an opposite effect in the body: They actually block some actions of vitamin A, which is critical to human vision, bone and skin health, metabolism and immune function.

Because these molecules derive from beta-carotene, researchers predict that a large amount of this antioxidant is accompanied by a larger amount of these anti-vitamin-A molecules, as well.

Professor Earl Harrison

Vitamin A provides its health benefits by activating hundreds of genes. This means that if compounds contained in a typical source of the vitamin are actually lowering its activity instead of promoting its benefits, too much beta-carotene could paradoxically result in too little vitamin A.

The findings also might explain why, in a decades-old clinical trial, more people who were heavily supplemented with beta-carotene ended up with lung cancer than did research participants who took no beta-carotene at all. The trial was ended early because of that unexpected outcome.

The scientists aren’t recommending against eating foods high in beta-carotene, and they are continuing their studies to determine what environmental and biological conditions are most likely to lead to these molecules’ production.

“We determined that these compounds are in foods, they’re present under normal circumstances, and they’re pretty routinely found in blood in humans, and therefore they may represent a dark side of beta-carotene,” said Earl Harrison, Dean’s Distinguished Professor ofHuman Nutrition at Ohio State and lead author of the study. “These materials definitely have anti-vitamin-A properties, and they could basically disrupt or at least affect the whole body metabolism and action of vitamin A. But we have to study them further to know for sure.”

The study is scheduled for publication in the May 4, 2012, issue of theJournal of Biological Chemistry.

Previous research has already established that when beta-carotene is metabolized, it is broken in half by an enzyme, which produces two vitamin A molecules.

In this new study, the Ohio State researchers showed that some of these molecules are produced when beta-carotene is broken in a different place by processes that are not yet fully understood and act to antagonize vitamin A.

Harrison is an expert in the study of antioxidants called carotenoids, which give certain fruits and vegetables their distinctive colors. Carotenoids’ antioxidant properties are associated with protecting cells and regulating cell growth and death, all of which play a role in multiple disease processes.

For this work, he joined forces with co-authors Robert Curley, professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy, and Steven Schwartz, professor of food science and technology, both at Ohio State. Curley specializes in producing synthetic molecules in the pursuit of drug development, and Schwartz is an expert at carotenoid analysis.

Curley manufactured a series of beta-carotene-derived molecules in the lab that match those that exist in nature. The researchers then exposed these molecules to conditions mimicking their metabolism and action in the body.

Of the 11 synthetic molecules produced, five appeared to function as inhibitors of vitamin A action based on how they interacted with receptors that would normally launch the function of vitamin A molecules.

“The original idea was that maybe these compounds work the way vitamin A works, by activating what are called retinoic acid receptors. What we found was they don’t activate those receptors. Instead, they inhibit activation of the receptor by retinoic acid,” Curley said. “From a drug point of view, vitamin A would be called an agonist that activates a particular pathway, and these are antagonists. They compete for the site where the agonist binds, but they don’t activate the site. They inhibit the activation that would normally be expected to occur.”

Once that role was defined, the researchers sought to determine how prevalent these molecular components might be in the human body. Analyzing blood samples obtained from six healthy human volunteers, the scientists in the Schwartz lab found that some of these anti-vitamin-A molecules were present in every sample studied, suggesting that they are a common product of beta-carotene metabolism.

The compounds also have been found previously in cantaloupe and other orange-fleshed melons, suggesting humans might even absorb these molecules directly from their diet.

Harrison noted that the findings might explain the outcome of a well-known clinical trial that has left scientists puzzled for years. In that trial, people at high risk for lung cancer – smokers and asbestos workers – were given massive doses of beta-carotene over a long period of time in an attempt to lower that risk. The trial ended early because more supplemented participants developed cancer than did those who received no beta-carotene. This outcome was reinforced by results of a follow-up animal study.

“Those trials are still sending shockwaves 20 years later to the scientific community,” said Harrison, also an investigator in Ohio State’s Comprehensive Cancer Center. “What we found provides a plausible explanation of why larger amounts of beta-carotene might have led to unexpected effects in these trials.”

The research also has implications for efforts to bio-engineer staple crops in developing countries so they contain excess beta-carotene, which is considered a sustainable way to provide these populations with pro-vitamin A. Existing projects include production of golden rice in Asia, golden maize in South America and cassava in Africa.

“A concern is that if you engineer these crops to have unusually high levels of beta-carotene, they might also have high levels of these compounds,” Harrison said.

The researchers are continuing to study these compounds, including whether food processing or specific biological processes affect their prevalence. Previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress, which can result from smoking and air pollution exposure, can lead to higher production of these anti-vitamin-A molecules, Harrison noted.

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Additional co-authors include Abdulkerim Eroglu, Carlo dela Sena and Sureshbabu Narayanasamy of the Department of Human Nutrition; Damian Hruszkewycz of the College of Pharmacy; and Ken Riedl and Rachel Kopec of the Department of Food Science and Technology, all at Ohio State. Harrison, Curley, Eroglu and dela Sena also are affiliated with Ohio State’s Biochemistry Program.

 

Vitamin E in Diet Protects Against Many Cancers

Researchers find form commonly used in supplements has no such benefit. 

Vitamin E in vegetable oils and nuts prevents cancer, according to research done at Rutgers University and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

Next time you need to choose between vegetable oil and margarine in that favorite recipe, think about your health and reach for the oil.

While the question of whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer has been widely debated in scientific journals and in the news media, scientists at the Center for Cancer Prevention Research, at Rutgers Mario School of Pharmacy, and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, believe that two forms of vitamin E – gamma and delta-tocopherols – found in soybean, canola and corn oils as well as nuts do prevent colon, lung, breast and prostate cancers.

“There are studies suggesting that vitamin E actually increases the risk of cancer and decreases bone density,” says Chung S. Yang, director of the center. “Our message is that the vitamin E form of gamma-tocopherols, the most abundant form of vitamin E in the American diet, and delta-tocopherols, also found in vegetable oils, are beneficial in preventing cancers while the form of vitamin E, alpha- tocopherol, the most commonly used in vitamin E supplements, has no such benefit.”

Director of the Center for Cancer Prevention Research at Rutgers Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy

Yang and colleagues, Nanjoo Suh and Ah-Ng Tony Kong, summarized their findings recently in Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. In a Commentary, Does Vitamin E Prevent or Promote Cancer? the Rutgers scientists discuss animal studies done at Rutgers as well as human epidemiological studies that have examined the connection between vitamin E and cancer.

Yang says Rutgers scientists conducting animal studies for colon, lung, breast and prostate cancer found that the forms of vitamin E in vegetable oils, gamma and delta-tocopherols, prevent cancer formation and growth in animal models.

“When animals are exposed to cancer-causing substances, the group that was fed these tocopherols in their diet had fewer and smaller tumors,” Yang says. “When cancer cells were injected into mice these tocopherols also slowed down the development of tumors.”

In researching colon cancer, Yang pointed to another recently published paper in Cancer Prevention Research indicating that the delta-tocopherol form of vitamin E was more effective than other forms of vitamin E in suppressing the development of colon cancer in rats.

This is good news for cancer research. Recently, in one of the largest prostate cancer clinical trials in the United States and Canada, scientists found that the most commonly used form of vitamin E supplements, alpha-tocopherol, not only did not prevent prostate cancer, but its use significantly increased the risk of this disease among healthy men.

This is why, Yang says, it is important to distinguish between the different forms of vitamin E and conduct more research on its cancer preventive and other biological effects.

“For people who think that they need to take vitamin E supplements,” Yang says, “taking a mixture of vitamin E that resembles what is in our diet would be the most prudent supplement to take.”

 

Reference

Yang CS, Suh N, Kong AN. Does Vitamin E Prevent or Promote Cancer? Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]

 

How Probiotic Bacteria Protect Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

A glimpse through the laser microscope – green indicates the presence of inflammatory messenger substances (chemokines) in the bowel tissue. Picture: TUM

Some lactic acid bacteria can alleviate inflammation and therefore prevent intestinal disorders. Scientists have now decoded the biochemical mechanism that lies behind the protective effect of the bacteria. In experiments with mice, the researchers succeeded in demonstrating that lactocepin – an enzyme produced by certain lactic acid bacteria – selectively degrades inflammatory mediators in diseased tissue. This new evidence might lead to new approaches for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Yoghurt has been valued for centuries for its health-promoting effects. These effects are thought to be mediated by the lactic acid bacteria typically contained in yoghurt. Evidence from recent scientific studies show that some bacterial strains actually have a probiotic effect and can thus prevent disease. A team of biologists and nutrition scientists working with Prof. Dirk Haller from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) has now discovered the mechanisms at work behind this protective effect (Cell Host & Microbe).

In experiments with mice, the scientists observed that lactocepin – an enzyme produced from the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei – can selectively interrupt inflammatory processes. As the scientists observed, lactocepin degrades messengers from the immune system, known as chemokines, in the diseased tissue. As a part of the “normal” immune response, chemokines are needed to guide defense cells to the source of the infection. In chronic intestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the otherwise highly effective defense mechanism against infectious agents is malfunctioning. Chemokines such as “IP-10” then contribute to the tissue damage due to chronic inflammatory processes,  preventing the tissue from healing.

“Lactocepin is a familiar element in food technology research,” says Prof. Dirk Haller, who holds the Chair for Biofunctionality of Food at the TUM. “What is surprising, however, is its biomedical effect, namely the force with which the enzyme attacks and degrades very specific inflammatory mediators.” Haller is certain that, based on this mechanism, it will be possible to develop new approaches to the targeted prevention and treatment of chronic bowel diseases as well as skin disorders: “The anti-inflammatory effect of lactocepin is limited to specific areas and up to now it has no known side effects.”

The scientist therefore plans to carry out clinical studies in order to test the possible pharmaceutical application of the enzyme. Questions also remain to be answered in relation to the “production” of lactocepin by lactic acid bacteria. Some bacterial strains, such as Lactobacillus paracasei, produce highly potent lactocepins; however, the effectiveness of other microorganisms has not yet been proven. Dirk Haller therefore warns against false promises: “Not every product labeled as ‘probiotic’ actually earns this name.”

Reference 
von Schillde MA, Hörmannsperger G, Weiher M, Alpert CA, Hahne H, Bäuerl C, van Huynegem K, Steidler L, Hrncir T, Pérez-Martínez G, Kuster B, Haller D. Lactocepin Secreted By Lactobacillus Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects By Selectively Degrading Proinflammatory Chemokines. Cell Host & Microbe 2012; 11 (4): 387–396.

 

Hungry for Change

We all want more energy, an ideal body and beautiful younger looking skin. So what is stopping us from getting this?

From the creators of the best-selling documentary Food Matters comes another hard-hitting film certain to rock your world.

Hungry for Change (2012) exposes shocking secrets the diet, weightloss and food industry don’t want you to know about; deceptive strategies designed to keep you coming back for more. Find out what’s keeping you from having the body and health you deserve and how to escape the diet trap forever.

Featuring interviews with best selling health authors and leading medical experts plus real life transformational stories with those who know what it’s like to be sick and overweight. Learn from those who have been there before and continue your health journey today.

 Learn More

www.hungryforchange.tv (Official Website)

10 Step Action Guide. Make these simple additions to your life and watch your health improve. You can even print this out and put this on your fridge!

Jon Gabriel’s Evening Visualisation. Listen and learn how to apply the principles of visualisation as discussed in the film with visualisation expert Jon Gabriel.

Food Matters is a hard hitting, fast paced look at our current state of health. It is a feature length documentary film informing you on the best choices you can make for you and your family’s health.

The Food Matters Detox and Rejuvenation Guide is an informative guide that will teach you how to apply the principles addressed in the film. This instantly downloadable e-Book will help you find better alternatives for the foods your body might not agree with, giving you the tools and skills necessary to prepare more nutritious meals.

Food Matters the Recipe e-Book. If you’ve watched Hungry For Change and Food Matters and you are looking for ways to incorporate the lessons from these films into your daily life then this book is for you. The idea is that once you start adding these recipes into your life on a daily basis you will start feeling better and this will encourage you to keep eating this way!

Societal Control of Sugar Essential to Ease Public Health Burden

Robert H. Lustig, MD, and a team of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) researchers argue that sugar should be controlled like alcohol and tobacco to protect public health. In a new report, they maintain that sugar is fueling a global obesity pandemic, contributing to 35 million deaths annually worldwide from non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease and cancer. 

 

 

Non-communicable diseases now pose a greater health burden worldwide than infectious diseases, according to the United Nations. In the United States, 75 percent of health care dollars are spent treating these diseases and their associated disabilities.

Robert Lustig, MD

In the Feb. 2 issue of NatureRobert Lustig, MD, Laura Schmidt, PhD, MSW, MPH, and Claire Brindis, DPH, colleagues at UCSF, argue that sugar’s potential for abuse, coupled with its toxicity and pervasiveness in the Western diet, make it a primary culprit of this worldwide health crisis.

This partnership of scientists trained in endocrinology, sociology and public health took a new look at the accumulating scientific evidence on sugar. Such interdisciplinary liaisons underscore the power of academic health sciences institutions like UCSF.

Sugar, they argue, is far from just “empty calories” that make people fat. At the levels consumed by most Americans, sugar changes metabolism, raises blood pressure, critically alters the signaling of hormones and causes significant damage to the liver – the least understood of sugar’s damages. These health hazards largely mirror the effects of drinking too much alcohol, which they point out in their commentary is the distillation of sugar.

Worldwide consumption of sugar has tripled during the past 50 years and is viewed as a key cause of the obesity epidemic. But obesity, Lustig, Schmidt and Brindis argue, may just be a marker for the damage caused by the toxic effects of too much sugar. This would help explain why 40 percent of people with metabolic syndrome — the key metabolic changes that lead to diabetes, heart disease and cancer — are not clinically obese.

“As long as the public thinks that sugar is just ‘empty calories,’ we have no chance in solving this,” said Lustig, a professor of pediatrics, in the division of endocrinology at the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and director of the Weight Assessment for Teen and Child Health (WATCH) Program at UCSF.

“There are good calories and bad calories, just as there are good fats and bad fats, good amino acids and bad amino acids, good carbohydrates and bad carbohydrates,” Lustig said. “But sugar is toxic beyond its calories.”

Limiting the consumption of sugar has challenges beyond educating people about its potential toxicity. “We recognize that there are cultural and celebratory aspects of sugar,” said Brindis, director of UCSF’s Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies (IHPS). “Changing these patterns is very complicated.”

According to Brindis, effective interventions can’t rely solely on individual change, but instead on environmental and community-wide solutions, similar to what has occurred with alcohol and tobacco, that increase the likelihood of success.

Laura Schmidt, PhD, MSW, MPH

The authors argue for society to shift away from high sugar consumption, the public must be better informed about the emerging science on sugar.

“There is an enormous gap between what we know from science and what we practice in reality,” said Schmidt, professor of health policy at UCSF’s IHPS and co-chair of UCSF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute’s (CTSI) Community Engagement and Health Policy Program, which focuses on bridging academic research, health policy, and community practice to improve public health. In order to move the health needle, this issue needs to be recognized as a fundamental concern at the global level,” she said.

The paper was made possible with funding from UCSF’s CTSI, UCSF’s National Institutes of Health-funded program that helps accelerate clinical and translational research through interdisciplinary, interprofessional and transdisciplinary work.

Claire Brindis, DPH

Many of the interventions that have reduced alcohol and tobacco consumption can be models for addressing the sugar problem, such as levying special sales taxes, controlling access, and tightening licensing requirements on vending machines and snack bars that sell high sugar products in schools and workplaces.

“We’re not talking prohibition,” Schmidt said. “We’re not advocating a major imposition of the government into people’s lives. We’re talking about gentle ways to make sugar consumption slightly less convenient, thereby moving people away from the concentrated dose. What we want is to actually increase people’s choices by making foods that aren’t loaded with sugar comparatively easier and cheaper to get.”

UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care. For more information, please visit http://www.ucsf.edu.

Photos by Susan Merrell

 

Reference 

Lustig RH, Schmidt LA, Brindis CD. Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Nature 2012; 482 (7383): 27-9.